Selective cutting is a term used in the management of forest land. Selective cutting and clear cutting both have a place in the proper management of timber growth. Protecting trees from deer is just one concern of forest landowners today. Trees are a renewable resource. Forests need to be managed and cared for properly as any natural resource should be. Standing timber can also bring the landowner some income while homesteading.
What Type of Trees Are You Growing?
The management of your land’s timber growth may depend on the predominant type of trees on the property. Hardwood forests might include oak, poplar, hickory, gum, locust, cherry, maple, walnut, and aspen. There may be other species native to your area. Dense, slow-growing, hardwood trees are the best trees for firewood. While it is true that any wood will burn, if you choose oak, hickory and locust, your fire will last longer and burn hotter.
Softwood trees include the pine varieties and evergreens such as juniper and fir. Soft pine lumber is used in the housing and furniture market. It is also used to make pressure treated lumber because it is a soft wood that can absorb the treating chemical. Wood fiber and paper pulp are other uses of soft woods.
Forest and timberland management is often an emotional topic. The terms clear cutting and selective cutting are easily misused and misunderstood. The better way to describe a timber harvest is managed cutting. The goal of proper management should be allowing healthy growth to continue. Focusing on what is left behind to continue the ecosystem and growth are preferable to a short-term economic profit. When thinned properly, a forest will grow at an 8% volume per year.
Selective Cutting as a Tool of Sustainable Forestry
When practiced correctly, selective cutting has the following benefits.
- Removes trees that are low quality while they are young.
- Removes some of the profitable mature growth.
- Allows more light to penetrate the upper story of growth. The remaining tree growth will increase dramatically.
- Allows trees that are shade intolerant to receive more light.
- Encourages remaining trees to naturally seed open areas.
- Saves some of the healthy mature trees for a future cutting.
- Gives increased light to the forest floor preventing molds and fungus from thriving to the point where they harm healthy trees.
This gradual growth management causes minimal disruption to the environment. It promotes new growth and allows the ground cover to thrive.
Criticism of selective cutting comes in when the practice is used to make the most profit by cutting all the healthy large trees at once. This leaves behind only undesirable timber. People in the industry refer to this as high-grading. This is not a forestry practice but an economic choice. High-grading maximizes short-term profit, leaving behind aging, poor-quality trees. This practice also disrupts more of the ground cover. This also possibly damages the water filtration that a forest provides.
Selective cutting in a managed, old growth forest is not the same as high-grading. Removing the larger trees in a managed tree farm setting of old growth provides trees for harvest every few years. This continual thinning is a sustainable management plan. Following this practice creates a healthier forest and provides income for the landowner to offset taxes and other expenses.
Clear Cutting Timber Harvest
When part of a harvest and regeneration technique, clear cutting can be good for new forest growth. The term often brings up mental images of large swathes of the countryside being ravaged for development. Clear cutting is almost exclusively used for pine, juniper and fir trees. Seedlings are replanted after the area is cleaned up. These trees grow to maturity quickly.
Clear cutting and natural regeneration in a hardwood forest can take up to sixty years. This is why selective cutting is preferable in a hardwood stand. Black cherry, aspen, and certain poplar varieties are shade intolerant. Clear cutting small patches allows these species the conditions they need for growth.
How is Management of the Hardwood Tree Farm Good for the Environment?
Overgrown forests are a fire risk. The forest floor growth disappears due to lack of sunlight and a thick covering of debris. The thick layer of tree limbs, leaves and bark allows fungus and molds to thrive. This is not a good environment for the natural low growing plants.
Hardwood forests will find a way to thin themselves out for the good of the forest. Older trees roots will weaken. Eventually, the tree will fall over, possibly taking other trees down with it.
Replace and Repair After the Harvest
After harvesting hardwood timber, the remaining trees will reseed naturally. It would be hard to clear cut an old growth forest and then try to reseed or plant seedlings. Recreating the diversity in the forest would be nearly impossible. Selective cutting allows the trees to take care of the new growth naturally.
Pine is treated more like a cash crop in some settings. The old southern plantation fields that used to grow rice and other cash crops may now be growing pine trees for harvest. Since pine grows much faster than a hardwood tree, it is more likely to be replanted with seedlings after clear cutting.